Wednesday, February 8, 2012

Calator in Thailanda 18. Parcul Istoric Sukhotai / Traveller in Thailand 18. Historical Park Sukhotai

The Historical Park Sukhotai has aprox. 70 square kilometers, and it is divided in 5 zones, the central one being the most important. The monuments here have been restaurated starting 1960 and the park is well preserved and very clean. The entrance is 100 bht/person (2.45 euro). You may visit the park by foot, by bycicle or by tuk-tuk. If you are 3-4 persons, a tuk-tuk will cost 300 bht (7.30 euro) at least for a couple of hours, and you will see the most important places in the park.

The Sukhotai Historical Park, along with the Si Satchanalai Historical Park and Kamphaeng Phet are the reference places for the early Thai style. They all are part of UNESCO treasury.

Between 1238-1438 Sukhotai has been the first capital of the Siam. King Ramkhamhaeng (1275-1317) extended the territory almost to the today borders. He also invented the first elements of the Thai alphabet, encouraged trade, has not put taxes on the population, and encouraged religious equality between sexes. You will see his statue in the historical park.

The main wats we saw here were: Wat Mahathat, Wat Si Sawai, WatSa Si and Wat Tra Phang Ngoen. Beautiful Buddhas statues, Khmer architecture elements, nice chedis. Manicured lawns, palm trees, lotus flowers in the ponds and water reservoires. The park needs more time to enjoy, you may have even a picnic there. But our time is limited. So, we will see some more temples tommorrow morning, and afterward we will go to Si Satchanalai.

Parcul Istoric Sukhotai ocupa o suprafata de cca. 70 kilometri patrati, pe care se pot vedea si admira ruine ale palatelor, portilor, santuri de aparare, bazine de apa, ruine ale templelor, reprezentand capodopere ale  stil timpuriu de arta Thai. El se imparte in 5 zone, dintre care zona centrala este cea mai bogata in monumente si cea mai vizitata. Ea a fost si cel mai bine restaurata (incepand cu 1960), este bine intretinuta si foarte curata. Impreuna cu Si Satchanalai si Kamphaeng Phet, aceste trei locuri sunt puncte de referinta pentru acest stil si au fost inscrise in patrimoniul UNESCO in 1991.
Intrarea in parc costa 100 bht/persoana (2.45 euro). Vizita se poate face pe jos - daca ai timp suficient la dispozitie -, cu o bicicleta inchiriata sau cu tuk-tuk -ul, daca sunteti un grup de 3-4 persoane. Acesta va duce pe la toate obiectivele importante, timp de doua ore - doua ore si jumatate si va readuce la poarta de intrare in parc, contra sumei negociate de 300 bht (7.30 euro)

Regatul Sukhotai a inflorit intre secolele 14-16, fiind incadrat de Regatul Pagan la vest si Regatul Khmer la est. Aparut cu cca. 800 de ani in urma, a fost primul Regat al Siamului. Intre 1238-1438, Sukhotai a fost capitala sa. Regele Ramkhamhaeng (1275-1317) a extins teritoriul sau aproape pana la cel de astazi. El este cel care a incurajat comertul,nu a cerut taxe supusilor sai, a sustinut bunele relatii cu China dinastiei Yuan (si chiar a calatorit acolo, de doua ori, se spune), a creat elementele care stau la baza alfabetului Thai. Prin atitudinea sa deschisa fata de budhism, a incurajat exprimarea sentimentului religios si a spiritualitatii, prin arhitectura si sculptura religioasa. Crearea unor sculpturi reprezentandu-l pe Buddha mergand si avand o infatisare mai feminina a dus la aparitia unor sculpturi pline de gratie. Acest mod de tratare a incurajat religia pentru ambele sexe, indicand egalitatea credintei, element nou pentru vremea aceea. Prosperitatea acestui regat constituie si astazi un motiv de mandrie pentru thailandezi.
statuia din bronz a Regelui Ramkhamhaeng
Dupa a doua jumatate a secolului al 14-lea, aparitia Regatului Lan -Na in nord (Chiang Mai) si a Regatului Ayutthaya in sud, a pus in dificultate Regatul Sukhotai. Prin casatorii intre cele doua dinastii si furnizarea de de forta de munca, Regatul Ayutthaya a dominat treptat Regatul Sukhotai. In 1438, intregul regat era deja anexat.

In centrul orasului antic Sukhotai se afla Wat Mahathat, construit in forma unui mugure de lotus, inconjurat de 8 chedi. In centru, in viharn-ul regal sta statuia unui Buddha asezat in pozitia supunerii  Marei. Numeroase stupe, chedi, statui ale lui Buddha stau marturie pentru maretia de odinioara a acestui templu.
   Templul Mahathat
Wat Si Sawai, aflat la 350 m sud de Wat Mahthat, a fost in secolul al 12-lea un sanctuar brahman, transformat apoi in templu buddhist cu o arhitectura khmera tipica, apartinand stilului Lop Buri. Acest lucru este indicat de cele trei turnuri inguste, delimitate de un zid, decorate cu stucatura cu fragmente de imagini brahmane, lingam (sculptura falica care il reprezinta pe Vishnu) si regele Vishnu sezand pe un tron format din naga. Stucatura aminteste, prin modelele sale si de designul chinez din timpul dinastiei Yuan.
Wat Si Sawai
Templul antic, fara zid inconjurator, Wat Tra Phang Ngoen are o parte din constructii pe o insula, in mijlocul unui rezervor de apa.
Wat Tra Phang Ngoen
Tot pe o insula se afla si parte din complexul Wat Sa Si. Un chedi frumos in forma de clopot si statuia gratioasa a unui Buddha care merge sunt caracteristice ale acestui templu. Un chiosc ofera loc de popas pe malul lacului.
Wat Sa Si
Parcul, vazut din tuk-tuk, e minunat si ar cere timp mai mult pentru hoinareala si - de ce nu? - chiar un picnic. Dar timpul nostru este limitat. Vom mai vedea cateva temple maine dimineata, apoi vom pleca la parcul istoric de la Si Satchanalai.


20 comments:

Joop Zand said...

Thanks for all these lovely images....... it's always pleasant to visit your blog.

warm greetings, Joop

Theanne said...

Enjoyed the photos...especially the tree with exposed roots, I take it this is a special tree since there are artifacts left there in the roots!

Traveling Hawk said...

Thanks, Joop, for the visit! Have a nice day!

Traveling Hawk said...

Theanne, thank you for the comment. I do not know for sure, no explanation there. But I take it they have a great respect for some trees, which could be seen transformed in a kind of shrine.

magda said...

Park-Museum my beloved friend!!!
Law is under the protection of UNESCO!
I thank you, was very interesting tour!!!
Have a nice day

Traveling Hawk said...

Thank you, Magda, for your visit here!

Doug Hickok said...

Wow, this is so beautiful and historic. I would love to visit such a place. I especially like the monumental Buddha. Another enlightening presentation TH :^)

Traveling Hawk said...

Yeah, that's the reason I went to Thailand, Doug! I haven't been to the seaside, on a beach. My aim was a historical and cultural one. Thanks for the comment!

Rizalenio said...

I've WOWed many times seeing all these photos. Amazing creations. I love the photo with Buddha's hand a lot. Happy weekend! :)

Traveling Hawk said...

Thank you very much, Rizalenio! Happy weekend to you too!

teodora13 said...

A durat ceva sa ajung la nr 18, dar a meritat. O calatorie fascinanta, cu o multime de informatii! Foarte mult m-au impresionat cei 12 uriasi. Fotografiile vorbesc de la sine.

Phivos Nicolaides said...

The monuments and their art and architecture design are stunning!!!

Traveling Hawk said...

Multumesc tare mult, teodora 13, pentru vizita si comentariu! Iti doresc un weekend frumos!

Traveling Hawk said...

Yes, Phivos, it is an amazing place! Thanks for the comment!

dong ho said...

next to buddha's and temples... i love the thai characters. i want my named written in those characters.

Traveling Hawk said...

yes, the characters are like a lace...you are right, dong ho!

Helma said...

So heeeee ...... really a blog for quite jealous of Traveling Hawk. If I see your pictures from this trip and I am already quite slightly jealous.

Beautiful temples and also the experience and see geschiedienis of yesteryear seemed also quite an experience. Thank you for sharing.

Greetings, Helma

Life Ramblings said...

this is awesome. it must have been a great experience to see all these wonderful creations up close.

Traveling Hawk said...

You are welcome, Helma! Thanks for the comment.

Traveling Hawk said...

You are right, Life Ramblings, it was!