Monday, October 29, 2012

Pe Drumul Matasii in Uzbekistan 14. La plimbare in Khiva-orasul muzeu (1) / On The Silk Road in Uzbekistan 14. Walking in Khiva, the Museum City (1)


In the morning, when we started the tour in Khiva, the first thing we saw has been the Ichan-Kala wall, which encircles the old town. The fortress is 8-10 m heigh, 6-8 m wide and it runs for more than 2 km. There are four gates to access the town. Ota Darwoza or the West Gate (1842-1975) is the place of a small bazaar where the rooms for tax collecting once where. The original gate was demolished on 1920 and it has been restaured only in 1920. Palvan Darwoza or the Gate of the Warriors (1806-1835) is the East Gate. Outside, on the right, it was the place of the slave market.  It was this gate where the Khan’s decrees where read and where the executions took place. Hence, the name of the Gate of the Slaves or Execution Gate.

This place was called Khorezm or Kharazm (The Land of Sun), only the Europeans use the name of Khiva. It is situated on the Amu-Darya bank and near the Kara-Kum desert. The oldest written proves mention that there were six different nations living here: the Uzbeks, the Sarts, the Dugma, the Persians, the Turkmens, and the Kossakhs. The Arabs and the Persians mentioned Khiva during the Xth century for the first time. Between 1984-1990 the first archeological works were carried out through 6 levels, stating out that the beginning of Khiva are somewhere between the centuries VI-III BC. There is no information during the VIIIth century, when Muslims conquered Central Asia. Then again, Khiva was reborn during the Samanids Dynasty. But the Mongols destroyed it in the XIIIth century. Like a Phoenix, in the XIXth century Khiva reappeared in all its splendor.
On 1990, Ichan-Kala was included in the UNESCO treasury as a valuable historic monument for all the mankind.

Kalta Minor or the Short Minaret is the symbol of Khiva. It’s heigh of 29 m is only one third of the initial project. When Muhamad Amin Khan died, the project was abandoned and the minaret remained unfinished.

There are also other minarets in Khiva like those near the Palwan Darwoza or the Imam Kodja Minaret, near the Imam Kodja Maddrasah. The name is given after the Great Vizir of the time, and the construction period was 1908-1910. This minaret is the highest observation point in Khiva. Is is 57  m heigh.

Dupa cum spuneam, am stat langa Ota Darwoza asa ca dimineata, cand am pornit la plimbare, am dat imediat cu ochii de zidurile fortaretei Ichan-Kala, ale carei ziduri impresionante inconjoara vechiul oras. Aceasta a fost construita in secolele V-IV inainte de Christos. Cate un turn de aparare apare la fiecare 30 m. Zidul are o lungime de mai bine de 2 km, 8-10 m inaltime si 6-8 latime. Fortareata are patru porti.
Ota Darwoza, Ichan-Kala, Kalta Minor
Ota Darwoza sau Poarta de Vest (1842-1975), adaposteste un mic bazar acoperit in ceea ce erau altadata camerele pentru colectarea taxelor. Poarta originala a fost demolata in 1920 si restaurata abia in 1975.
dimineata, langa Ichan-Kala
 Ota Darwoza la rasaritul soarelui
La capatul opus al orasului este poarta Palvan Darwoza sau Poarta Razboinicilor, Poarta de Est (1806-1835). Prin doua porti de lemn sculptate, se trece printr-un coridor de piatra. La iesire, in partea dreapta a fiintat - pana in 1873 - targul de sclavi. La poarta erau citite decretele hanului si executati criminalii. De aceea i se mai spunea si Poarta Sclavilor sau Poarta Executiilor. Acum in partea stanga, la iesire, te intampina o piata locala colorata.
 Palvan Darwoza sau Poarta Razboinicilor
Denumirea de Khiva era utilizata mai ales de catre europeni, zona purtand numele de Khorezm sau Khvarazm, si insemnand Tara Soarelui. Asezata pe malul Amu-Dariei si in apropierea desertului Kara-Kum, ea trebuie sa li se fi parut calatorilor in toate timpurile, o oaza binecuvantata! Cele mai vechi scrieri o mentioneaza, enumerand sase populatii diferite care traiau aici: uzbecii, sartii, dugma, persanii, turkmenii si cazacii. Asezarea geografica, clima si amprenta atator culturi diferite nu au putut sa nu influenteze aspectul orasului. Zona aflata intre ziduri este inca locuita.

Datorita lucrarilor arheologice tarzii (au inceput abia in anii '50) si faptului ca nu se stiau prea multe despre oras, decat din secolul al XV-lea incoace, fac din Khiva un loc care intra in atentie relativ recent, comparativ cu alte orase din Asia Centrala. Autori arabi si persani o mentioneaza prima data in secolul al X-lea. Lucrarile arheologice, desfasurate intre 1984-1990, luind in considerare sase straturi stratigrafice, situeaza incepututurile sale in secolele VI-III inainte de Christos.  Spre sfarsitul secolului al IV-lea, cetatea decade pentru ca in secolele VI-VIII sa renasca, fapt demonstrat de ruinele unor castele aflate pe dealurile inconjuratoare. Campania musulmanilor de cucerire a Khorezmului este considerata cauza absentei informatiilor privind secolul al VIII-lea. In secolul X, Khiva este incorporata in Imperiul Samanizilor, ceea ce a condus la revitalizarea ei. Secolul al XIII-lea aduce din nou distrugerea sa, prin invazia mongola, cand zidul de la Ichan-Kala a fost distrus si locul transformat in cimitir. O noua inflorire incepe in secolul al XIX-lea. Este doar un rezumat acesta, al unei istorii indelungate a permanentei umane in aceste locuri.

In 1990 Ichan-Kala a fost inclusa in patrimoniul UNESCO ca monument istoric de importanta mondiala.
Odata intrati in cetate, Madrasa Muhammad Aminkhan si minaretul Kalta Minor va intampina.
 Madrasa Muhammad Aminkhan
"Minaretul scurt" sau Kalta Minor este simbolul orasului Khiva. El are o inaltime de 29 m dar reprezinta doar o treime din proiectul initial, conceput fiind  ca cel mai mare minaret al lumii musulmane. Cel care a initiat construirea sa, Hanul Muhamamd Amin, a murit insa in anul 1855 si lucrarile de constructie au incetat. Kalta Minor este insa unic deoarece este singurul minaret acoperit in intregime cu majolica glazurata. In jurul sau s-au tesut numeroase legende.
 Kalta Minor cu Ota Darwaza
 Kalta Minor si Madrasa Muhammad Aminkhan
Mai sunt si alte minarete in Khiva, cum ar fi cele de la Palvan Darwaza sau Minaretul Islam Kodja de langa madrasa cu acelasi nume. Cele din urma au fost construite intre 1908-1910 si denumite dupa Marele Vizir al timpului. Acesta era iubit de popor pentru ca a construit un spital si o scoala publica si a initiat o serie de reforme in educatie. Minaretul are 57 m, iar platforma construita la 45 m este cel mai inalt punct de observatie din Khiva. Fiind cu grupul, n-am putut sa urc in varf, din pacate.
 in afara zidului Orasului Vechi, la Poarta Palvan
 spre Islam Kodja Minaret
Islam Kodja Minaret
 Madrasa Islam Kodja

8 comments:

Helma said...

4 km later. so it is quite a long wall. What strikes me is that they make a lot of kleru blue love, because both towers and many buildings all have blue decorations.
Another beautiful and informative blog Traveling Hawk :-)

Traveling Hawk said...

Blue is characteristic for all Uzbekistan majolica and tiles. I know that Delph porcelain is blue and white too:)

Doug Hickok said...

Hi TH! I came to cheer you up :^) Even if November approaches, your photography and travels make happy all of us who come to visit! Just think of all the fantastic places you have seen, then you will smile.

Randy said...

What an amazing place.

Traveling Hawk said...

Thanks, Doug! You are very kind. I already feel better:)

Traveling Hawk said...

Thank you, Randy.

DANI said...

Splendide decoratiile albastre. Cred, ca eu imi aduceam niste placute de ceramica pe post de suvenir :)
Ai fost bolnava ? Sper, ca te simti mai bine acum ... Toate cele bune, Adriana !

Traveling Hawk said...

Multumesc pentru vizita, Dani! Nu, n-am fost bolnava.