Monday, November 12, 2012

Pe Drumul Matasii in Uzbekistan 17. Mausoleul lui Pakhlavan Mahmoud, Khiva / On the Silk Road in Uzbekistan 17. Pakhlavan Mahmoud Mausoleum, Khiva


There are four types of buildings which in Central Asia represent the culture, the religion, the art, and the aesthetics of the people who erected them. These 4M are: the medresah, the mosque, the minaret and the mausoleum. Usually, a mausoleum consists of a square bloque of stone, representing Earth solidity and a round cupola upon it, representing the Heaven. In time, because of the great number of people coming – even from distant lands – to pray at the tombs, the mausoleums have been changed into real complex of buildings, meant to give shelter and food to the pelerins.

Pakhlavan Mahmoud Mausoleum is the symbol of Khiva. It has the single blue cupola in town, and the biggest. The actual complex was erected in 1810 by Muhammad-Rahim Khan I, who chosed to be buried here also.

Pakhlavan Mahmoud leaved in the XIIIth. Century. He was a poet, a Sufi teacher, a professional wrestler and a healer. Praised for his unusual strength, similar with that of Hercule’s, he was known even in Iran and India. There are countless legends about him. Because Sufi adepts have to earn their money through a usual profession, Pakhlavan Mahmoud had a fur shop, making robes and hats. His shop was the place were he has been buried. The first mausoleum has been very modest compared with the actual one.

Because he was such a famous man, other two Khans wanted to be buried here: Abdul Gazi and Anusha.
 
In orasele din Asia Centrala, patru sunt tipurile de cladiri prin care s-a manifestat cultura, religia, arta si estetica acelor popoare: medresa, moscheea, minaretul si mausoleul. Mausoleul a fost construit pentru a cinsti memoria cuiva si avea, de obicei, forma unui cub – reprezentand soliditatea Pamantului – cu o cupola deasupra , care reprezenta Cerul. Cu timpul, pentru ca pelerinii veneau sa se inchine la cei considerati sfinti, in jurul mausoleului au aparut si alte constructii care sa ii adaposteasca si sa ii hraneasca. In felul acesta, mausoleul a devenit un adevarat complex. Desi Coranul cere credinciosilor sa se roage doar lui Alah, considerand un pacat rugaciunea adresata unui om, numerosi pelerini – inclusiv din tari straine – au batut in timp drumurile Asiei pentru a se inchina in locuri considerate sfinte. Acesti 4M ai constructiilor islamice se regasesc in fiecare dintre ele. 
                                                             cupola in renovare
 Mausoleul Pakhlavan Makhmud
kuba (se afla in varful cupolei)
cladirea in care erau adapostiti pelerinii
Mausoleul lui Pakhlavan Mahmoud este unul dintre cele mai impunatoare monumente din Khiva. Cupola sa (aflata in renovare cand am fost acolo) este cea mai mare din oras, asimilata fiind simbolului Khivei. Ea este si singura de culoare albastra. Intreg interiorul constructiei este albastru, datorita placarii peretilor cu placi de majolica albastra. Bogatia detaliilor este coplesitoare.
Pakhlavan Mahmoud a fost o figura complexa a istoriei Khivei, care a trait in secolul al XIII-lea. Puterea sa neobisnuita, laudata precum cea a lui Hercule, era cunoscuta pana in Iran si India  Poet, filosof Sufi, luptator si vindecator, el a devenit, dupa moarte,  patronul orasului. Numeroase legende s-au tesut in jurul sau, care ii scot in evidenta calitatile admirate. Deoarece credinta Sufi cerea practicantilor sai sa aiba si o meserie onorabila, de pe urma careia sa traiasca, Pakhlavan Mahmoud avea o blanarie, ocupandu-se cu confectionarea caciulilor si mantiilor din blana. Se spune ca in acel loc a si fost inmormantat. 

Mausoleul pe care il putem vizita acum a fost cladit in 1810, de catre Hanul Muhammad-Rahim I. Acesta a si ales sa fie inmormantat in acelasi loc cu eroul venerat. Se spune ca, initial, mausoleul a fost mic si modest. Intr-o camera mai mica, in spatele unui paravan lucrat cu fildes, se afla sarcofagul eroului. Tot in acest mausoleum sunt inmormantati doi Hani din secolul al XVII-lea: Abdul Gazi si Anusha si unul din secolul al XIX-lea, cel care a construit mausoleul actual, Muhammad-Rahim I.
 mormintele lui Abdul Gazi (stanga), Muhammad Rahim I (centru) si Anusha (dreapta)

28 comments:

Joop Zand said...

BEAUTIFUL pictures with nice details,
i like the blue and turcoise colors.

Greetings, Joop

Traveling Hawk said...

Hi, Joop! Thank you for the comment.

黄清华 Wong Ching Wah said...

Amazing Islamic art!

Kumiko said...

These architectures are beautiful.The delicate mural paintings on the ceilings and the walls transcend description.
They are really prominent,skillful works of art.The blue color is really beautiful,which cannot be seen in our country.
Thank you so much for sharing them.

ANITA said...

wow!!amazing photoes!!!!i love them..the ornaments..the buildings!!and also this as you say"..In time, because of the great number of people coming – even from distant lands – to pray at the tombs, the mausoleums have been changed into real complex of buildings, meant to give shelter and food to the pelerins...give shelter and food to the pelegrins!!wow!!
thank you for interesting post travelling hawk!!Many huhgs from norway!!))

DANI said...

Acum fac legatura dintre arta araba si influentele pe care le-au avut spaniolii de la ei. Daca arabii nu cucereau Iberia, probabil ca n-ar fi existat Gaudi, cel putin nu asa cum il cunoastem acum ... Nu-mi inchipuiam, ca lumea islamica are o traditie asa de veche in materie de placute ceramice. Opere de arta !

VP said...

I like the wonderful blues!

Traveling Hawk said...

Thanks for the visit, Wong!

Traveling Hawk said...

Dear Kumiko, thank you for leaving this comment here. I see you read now the current post.

Traveling Hawk said...

Thanks, Anita, for the comment1 It is about the believers, when I say "pelerins".

Traveling Hawk said...

Asa e, Dani! Arabii erau mari mesteri la ceramica, majolica si...gradini:)

Traveling Hawk said...

Blue everywhere in Uzbekistan, VP!

Randy said...

The door is beautiful.

Traveling Hawk said...

Thank you, Randy!

Giani said...

Felicitari!Ceea ce vad aici ma lasa pur si simplu fara cuvinte!

cartim said...

Woww , cata migala ascund acest maosoleu.

Este deosebit de frumos si foarte rafinat.

Frumos surprins dpv gotografic, pasiunea pentru fotografie este ceva genetic... :))

Traveling Hawk said...

Giani, multumesc.

Traveling Hawk said...

Asa zici, cartim? Poti verifica saptamana viitoare....oricum, Arashi fotografiaza mult mai bine ca mine, "blogaieste" mai bine, e mult mai buna la tot ce este IT si sunt mandra de asta!

Parcheth said...

breathtaking!

Traveling Hawk said...

Thanks for the visit, Parcheth!

Helma said...

I had never heard of Pakhlavan Mahmoud Traveling Hawk, but now they do. You know it very interesting to write a wonderful blog full of beautiful pictures. The details are also displayed beautifully :-)



Traveling Hawk said...

Thank you, Helma dear!

Doug Hickok said...

You have such a great eye for finding beautiful details which bring to life your wonderful posts TH! Simply beautiful!

Traveling Hawk said...

Thank you very much, Doug!

LifeRamblings said...

beautiful and interesting work of art. thanks for taking us along on your wonderful journey.

Traveling Hawk said...

You are welcome, LifeRamblings! Glad you are coming:)

magda said...

My dear friend
Many many thanks for your lovely wishes!
All summer I had children (Danae pregnant and my son) from June to end of September. The doctor had said, to swim in the sea, it is good!
BIRTH OF November 3 Little Magda.
I had no time for bloking.
I saw all the great photos you in Uzbekistan. What a wonderful and interesting place! I am fascinated!
many greetings and kissess

Traveling Hawk said...

Thank you, dear Magda!