Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Pe Drumul Matasii in Uzbekistan 21. Istorie, strazi si piete in Buhara / On the Silk Road in Uzbekistan 21. History, Streets and Markets in Bukhara


Bukhara, one of the oldest town in Central Asia, has nowadays 250000 inhabitants. Its long and impressive history it’s a long row of events, dynasties, and religion changing. The archeological drenches went in depth to  a 20 m horizon, to reveal the remnants of the town.

Certain historical sources fix the beginning in the 13th century B.C., almost 1000 years before the Alexander the Great! Aryans migration, Iranian Soghdian ruling, being part of the Persian Empire, Arabs conquest, Genghis Khan invasion, Russian protectorate, being part of the former Soviet Union is a very short synopsis of Bukhara’s history. The name of the place is o Soghdian origin, claim some historian, “Buxarah” meaning “lucky place’. Others sustain that the name comes from the Sanskrit “Vihara”, meaning “monastery” and sustaining the Budhist past of the time.

During the conversion to Islamism (after the conquest of the Arabs, in the 8th century), Bukhara became a world renowned center of science and education. Over 350 mosques and 100 maddrasah determine dthe nickname od “Noble Bukhara”.


Around 500 B.C., when the actual town was constructed, the God Sin was worshiped here, the God of the Moon, who protects the nomads people. The town developed to 350 B.C., when it was captured by the Hua Mongolian tribes, who brought upon it the decline.


As every traditional plain town, Bukhara had also an ark – a fortress where local rulers lived -, the shakhristan, which was the town itself, and a necropolis, outside town limits, with the crypts asnd tombs. Two main crossroads streets parted the town in four sectors, representing the universal order in society and nature. From that time, 140 historic and archeological monuments remained.


The Ark looked into the old Registan square of which only a minaret remained. The Ark had powerful, impressive walls and four gates (only two can be seen today). The site was in reconstruction, so we could only see one gate and the walls, from outside.


The trade domes, which are very near, where the place were the traders gathered. It is a dome covered area, were you may see now the souvenir vendors. Walking after the locals, we saw also the modern market.

 


Buhara, unul dintre cele mai vechi orase ale Asiei Centrale, numara astazi 250000 locuitori si se afla la vest de Samarkand. Istoria sa multimilenara este bogata in evenimente, siruri de dinastii, schimbari de religie. Orasul a crescut pe verticala timp de peste 2500 de ani dar nu si-a schimbat niciodata locul. Santurile sapaturilor arheologice au mers pana la 20 m adancime pentru a revela urme ale asezarilor anterioare.


Inceputul orasului este oarecum incert. Totusi, anumite surse istorice il fixeaza in secolul 13 inainte de Christos, cu aproape 1000 de ani inainte de Alexandru cel Mare. Istoria locurilor este fascinanta. Originile sale se pierd in migratia arienilor, stapanirea sogdienilor iranieni, imperiul persan.  Chiar numele sau, spun unii, ar fi de origine sogdiana, provenit de la “Buxarah”, adica “loc norocos”. Altii il revendica de la sanscritul “Vihara”, insemnand manastire, cu referire expresa la budhism. Devenita, in timp, renumit centru de invatamant islamic, unul din cele 7 orase sfinte ale Islamului, dar si bogat centru comercial pe 
Drumul Matasii care i-a intensificat propasirea, Buhara si-a castigat numele de “Nobila Buhara”.

Dominata pe rand de budhism, zoroastrism si crestinism nestorian, odata cu capturarea sa de catre arabi, la inceputul secolului al 8 lea, intreaga zona este convertita la islamism. Peste 350 de moschei si 100 de madrase numara acea Buhara, centru mondial al stiintei si culturii.

Prin anul 500 inainte de Christos, perioada pentru care exista certe dovezi de existenta, locuitorii sai il adorau pe Sin, zeul Lunii, ocrotitorul popoarelor nomade. Orasul a continuat sa se dezvolte intre 500-350 inainte de Christos, pana cand a cazut in mainile triburilor mongolice Hua, care i-au adus declinul. Totusi, s-au pastrat aici peste 140 de monumente istorice si arhitecturale.

Ca orice oras al acelor vremuri si acesta era alcatuit din ark, adica citadela – care avea rol de aparare si servea drept resedinta conducatorilor locali, shakhristan, orasul propriu-zis si necropola, dincola de limitele orasului. Orasul era impartit in patru sectoare de catre doua strazi principale, care se intersectau. Acest plan general valabil, traditional pentru orasele de campie, reflecta ordinea lucrurilor in natura si societate. La Buhara, din cele patru porti ale orasului s-au mai pastrat doua, restaurate, ca si zidurile massive ale Arkului. Din pacate, acesta era in renovare si am putut vedea doar poarta flancata de doua turnuri in doua etaje, legate printr-o galerie. Prin constructii successive, Arkul a ajuns pe un deal artificial de 18 m inaltime. Este cel mai vechi monument al orasului.
 Arkul din Buhara
 zidurile impresionante ale fortaretei
Fortareata priveste spre Registan, marea piata a orasului.
 vedere spre Registan, de la zidurile Arkului
Pana acolo, trecem prin alta piata straveche, unde azi se aduna bijutierii pentru a-si vinde marfa.
In Buhara medievala existau patru bazaruri, unde se vindeau produse diverse. Taq-i-Zargaron era piata bijutierilor (alta decat cea de azi), cu 36 de magazine si ateliere. Pietele erau legate intre ele prin culoare acoperite sau stradute inguste. Erau acoperite cu cupole avand pana la 14.5 m diametru.

Pravalii si depozite se inghesuiau, alcatuind un fel de mall din zilele noastre. Aici isi faceau veacul si zarafii, care imprumutau si schimbau bani. Acum si-au gasit loc aici vanzatorii de suveniruri.
 ceaiuri si mirodenii
bazarele acoperite
Dupa ce vedem si carne expusa si vanduta pe strada, ne luam dupa localnici pentru a ajunge intr-o piata adevarata, contemporana, se vedem de unde se aprovizioneaza azi locuitorii Buharei.

10 comments:

Joop Zand said...

Interesting to read and very good photo's....it's a pleasure this post !

Greetings, Joop

Traveling Hawk said...

Thank you, Joop! Have a nice day!

Anonymous said...

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Traveling Hawk said...

You are welcome, Anonymous! I hope to finish this serial on January, when another trip awaits me:)

DANI said...

Ce ti-ai luat de la bazar ? Cred, ca ai fost in incurcatura, cu ce suveniruri sa te intorci acasa :)

Traveling Hawk said...

N-am fost in incurcatura, Dani, fiindca nu prea cumpar suveniruri. Acolo am luat totusi o mica figurina din lut nears, reprezentand un dervis.

Helma said...


Also this blog is again packed with information. You also see things on the market that you will not soon will come at the same as the meat that hangs.

What are those curved scissors actually scissors and where are those used for?




Traveling Hawk said...

Thanks for the comment, Helma! Yes, those are scissors but I do not know how efficient they are. They are sold only in Bukhara (at least I saw them only there), and my guess would be that they are more on the souvenirs side. B is also known for the metal work, and along with beautiful (and expensive) daggers they sell these scissors.

Doug Hickok said...

All I can say is, just astonishing! I love seeing the crafts... the rugs, the musical instruments, the fabrics, the scissors... these are all beautiful. Great shots TH!

Traveling Hawk said...

Thanks for visiting, Doug!